Definition of regional
Regional is most commonly a geographical term that used in various ways among the different branches of geography. A region may be seen as a collection of smaller units or as one part of a larger whole (as like Wilayah Persekutuan) in Malaysia. Beside that the definition of a regional can be define as an area that spanning two or more administrative regions. According to the Town and Planning Act, Act 172, the region are define as having two state or more.
Definition on Regional Planning
Regional planning is a branch of land use planning and deals with the efficient placement of land use activities, infrastructure, and settlement growth across a significantly larger area of land than an individual city or town. The related field of urban planning deals with the specific issues of city planning. Both of these concepts are simplify in spatial planning using a Eurocentric definition.
Beside that this are the category of planning and development that deals with designing and placing infrastructure and other elements across a large area. Regional planning zones may encompass several towns, cities or even parts of different states, each of which could have their own planning offices in the realm of "urban planning."
The key to regional planning is anticipating the needs of a community or group of communities before those needs arise. Regional planning experts might try to predict how and where the population of a region is going to grow over the next decade and recommend the building of roads and other infrastructure to support that growth before it happens.
Those involved in regional planning are often called planning commissioners. Planning commissioners work with the local governments and urban planners within their regional planning zone to discuss such issues as regional development, land use, community development, long-range planning, environmental planning, housing and economic development.
Regional planning often walks a fine line between serving the needs of the community, protecting the environment and taking into account the rights of individual land owners and community members.
Depending on the mission statement of the regional planning commission, the group may serve exclusively as an advisory board, as a research arm of the member cities, or as a governmental entity that approves building permits or neighborhood plans in the region or in unincorporated areas of the region.
Regional planning commissioners should have sufficient knowledge in many areas, including engineering, the environment, transportation, sociology, and geography. Many colleges and universities now offer degrees in urban planning and regional planning.
Regional planners are the main actor that know the development of each region that there serve and the need of the communities within them and also there also bear in mind that the impact of the environmental to the large scale of people living together.
Regional planning is an important way to understand how a region is growing and what needs to be done to ensure that growth happens in a logical and reasonable way. Planners are responsible to find the way to make living in the regional are more sustainable and comfort to living in it.
Purpose of Regional Planning
The main purpose of regional planning is that a balanced development between regions can be achieved. So that the development can happen be dividing fairly between the regional. Beside that the purpose are coming from the problem that happen in the regional area. The example of problem that change it into a purpose are
1. The planning of the mega project
This type of planning surely will give impact to the regional context and will become an issue due to the impact after the projects become a reality. For sure the urbanization of the regional become higher this will give employment to many people and people will stay at the region for jobs and without planning it surely will cause disaster to region itself.
2. Rapid urbanization.
This phenomenon can cause urban sprawl at an urban city if there is no prevention from any one that responsible. Urban sprawl can have many bad effects on the people and the environment itself. Urbanization should be fast but must have an effective way to make a region become comfortable to live on.
3. Too focus on urban development.
This will make only the urban have all the accommodation that are by the community but for the other side
Beside that the purpose of regional planning is to provide a framework for regional plan that will:
1. Involve all segments of the region in developing a vision for the future of the region;
2. generate pride and enthusiasm about the future of the region;
3. engage the interest of regional policy makers and stakeholders in implementing the plan; and
4. Provide a guide to everyday decision-making for use by government officials and other regional leaders.
5. Involve in growing and balancing the economy in the region
6. Protect the environmental, natural and cultural resources, so the next generation could have it.
Issues on regional planning
There are many issues that occur in regional context some of it is big and some of it is small. Some of the issues are:
1. Employment opportunities in any sector in the region
In a region, there must be work that will provide employment for people that want to work. This people are important to make sure the development of a region become successfully. In order to create it, employments are open to fulfill the demand for worker at certain organization. If there are no employments that mean there is no man power to generate income to the organization and this will let to down turn of the economics of the regional. This will become big problem to the community that lives in there.
2. Declining of quality of life.
The quality of life is important because it one of the factor that effect the productivity of the people and also the community itself. But today we can see that the quality of our life become declining due to some factor that is for example so busy with work until no time for family. These ways of living are common in big city and also for the regional context. Because of that action were taken, for example in Malaysia the former Prime Minister Tun Dr Mahathir Muhammad have state the guide line on how to achieve a quality life in this 20th century situation. These guidelines are for all state in Malaysia and also the regional area.
3. Unbalance between the urban and rural area
This is the common issues that happen in the regional. This is due to attention on the development on the urban area only, not in the rural, that why there are many people going out from rural settlement, because there are no employment in the rural, there just can only find job in urban area. If these trends happen without any action, lastly the settlers are going to be the old folks, women and children. The productivity of the rural area will decrease and this will create a problem to that place. So in this context the balance between the urban and rural are important.
4. Immigration of rural population to urban area.
This becoming issues due to many rural population going to urban than stayed in the village. This maybe cause of some factor such as at rural area the infrastructures are not well maintain so it’s hard living there. Beside that the attraction that have in the urban area are the main reason why there are many people from the rural area come and populate the urban area or in this context we called it regional due to combination of the small and big area to become bigger.
1. The Image and the Region-Making Mega city Region Visible! , by Alain Thierstein, Agnes Forster, Lars Muller Publisher